看国外 | John Gadd:如何让猪场远离非洲猪瘟?(1)

看国外 2019-01-16 21:35:08

来源:Pig Progress

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John Gadd

African Swine Fever (ASF) is the most worrying of the virus diseases at present, writes management expert John Gadd. Due to mandatory restrictions on pig meat trade in affected areas, this restricts income and wrecks cash flow, both of which can close pig businesses at all levels. What can farm owners do?

管理专家约翰加德写道,非洲猪瘟是目前最令人担忧的病毒性疾病。受影响地区对生猪肉品贸易的强制性限制,限制了收入,破坏了现金流,这两者都足以关闭各级生猪业务。对此,养猪户能做些什么?

There has been much written about ASF recently, so why am I adding to the pile of information? I have been around long enough to have been in the front line of several Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Classical Swine Fever outbreaks, where a lot of mistakes were made in getting both viral outbreaks sufficiently and quickly enough under control.

最近已经有很多写非瘟的文章,为什么我还要在这成堆的信息中再加上一笔呢?我已经在养猪业浸泡了很久,也曾奋战在几次口蹄疫和典型猪瘟爆发的前线,在充分及迅速控制病毒爆发方面犯了很多错误。

Mistakes of unawareness rather than ignorance. Because even in the early stages, the advice on how to stem the flood of infection was there but insufficiently acted upon at farm level. We must not make the same errors again. And there are signs that we are doing so.

犯错并非由于无知,而是因为意识不到。因为即使在早期阶段,也有预防感染的建议,但猪场在实践中却没有充分落实。我们不能再犯同样的错误了。而有迹象表明我们正在这样犯这些错。

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Making sure that nobody gets on-farm is a good start to keep ASF away from the pigs. Photo: Vincent ter Beek

不让任何人进入猪场是让猪场远离非瘟的良好开端

So… here in 3 consecutive columns (the 3rd one being a ground plan of what from experience I consider an ‘ideal’ layout of a disease-protective pig unit) are the impressions I have gained from what needs to be done by the ordinary pig producer of any size or shape.

接下来的专栏里,我将连续用3篇文章讲述我认为不同规模的猪场应该做的事情。第3篇文章有一个平面图,是我根据经验,认为是 “理想”的预防猪病的布局

ASF is all about contact

非瘟与接触相关

ASF is spread by contact. Far less by the pig breathing the virus in as in Classical Swine Fever, so it should be easier to prevent and control. Think ‘contact’ in everything you plan to do and subsequently carry out on the premises.

非洲猪瘟通过接触传播。与传统的猪瘟相比,吸入病毒的猪要少得多,因此应该更容易预防和控制。当你计划做每一件事时,先想一想“接触”,然后再实施。

What do I mean by contact? Not just pig to pig, but what we humans do by allowing the ASF virus in through contact on the clothing equipment, vehicles, food deliveries, breeding stock and every other visit by an ‘outsider’ to or into your vulnerable farm premises. So while ASF threatens locally or nationally – and preferably subsequently…

我所说的接触是什么意思?不仅仅是猪对猪,非瘟病毒还可以通过我们人类的服装设备、车辆、食品运输、种畜以及任何“外人”进入到我们脆弱的农场。因此,鉴于目前非瘟正在本土、国家间肆虐,最好是……

Keep everybody off your farm

让所有人远离我们的猪场

You will need discipline and tact to do this effectively. Quite brutally, you do not know where they have been! So do not risk it. The only permissible person as routine is the pig veterinarian and of all people he should take the necessary precautions.

要有效做到这一点,需要纪律和机制。虽然很残忍,但我们不知道他们曾去过哪儿!所以不要冒险。唯一允许的常规人员是养猪兽医,在所有人员中,他应该采取必要的预防措施。

Even so, do not allow his vehicle on to the farm. Have a parking spot outside the perimeter and if necessary, help carry his equipment in for him. There will be skilled artisans of course, electricity, roofing, plumbing, etc. who will need access. Keep their vehicles off the farm too and make it clear beforehand (for the sake of good relations) that they will have to use farm overalls and footwear. And may need their equipment mist-sprayed.

即便如此,也不要让他的车进入猪场。可以在猪场外围设立一个停车位,必要时帮他把设备搬进来。当然,还有熟练的工匠,比如电工、屋顶维修工、管道师傅等需要进入猪场。他们的车辆也要远离猪场,并且事先(为了保持良好的关系)明确和他们表示,必须使用农场工作服和鞋子,并且可能需要对设备进行喷雾消毒。

An unbreakable farm perimeter defence

坚不可摧的猪场防御

For the delivery of replacement stock (semen is safer than live pigs) and the collection of finished pigs, have designated areas on or just outside the farm perimeter. On no account allow ‘helpful’ drivers (offering to assist with the loading) on to the premises. The same with bulk or bagged food and supplies. As soon as you can, set up food reception bulk bins using your own inlet hoses, not theirs; a covered site for bags and other bulky deliveries. All 3 on the farm boundary, for later inward transmission by your own staff, never theirs.

至于生猪交替(精液比活猪更安全)和育肥猪出栏,可以在猪场周围或仅在猪场外指定一个区域。任何情况下,都不允许协助装载的司机进入猪场。散装或袋装食品、用品也是如此。尽可能快地用你自己的进口软管建立食品接收散装箱;这是一个有盖的地方用于袋子和其他大型货物的运送。这3个都应设在猪场边界上,日后由我们自己的员工,而不是对方的员工传入。

Vehicles may bring in the ASF virus

车辆可能携带非瘟病毒

Failure to consider the wheels and undersides of vehicles were a major omission in the previous viral outbreaks I was involved with, and proved to be a major disease vector. One aspect of this even today is to remember that your own vehicles may bring in disease, so a separate entrance and exit for these is wise, where the essential minimum of an approved disinfectant dip at least as long as a tyre`s circumference is installed and kept fresh – remember rainfall.

在我之前参与的病毒暴发案例中,一个主要的疏忽是没有考虑进车辆的轮子和车底,而这已证明是一个主要的疾病媒介。即使在今天,这方面也必须谨记一点,我们自己的车辆可能会带来疾病,因此,设立车辆独立进出口是明智之举,消毒液池的最低长度只要是轮胎的周长即刻,并经常更新,因为可能会下雨受影响。。

Bigger units, where the cost of viral ingress can be catastrophic because of their sheer size, should invest in a vehicle-operated under-spray device, Workers’ transport, from bicycles upwards, should, after passing through the dip area, have their own parking area away from the usual paths and tracks used by staff between buildings.

对于更大型的猪场,由于规模大,病毒侵入的成本可能是灾难性的,因此应该购置一个喷雾装置,并且设置一个停车区,远离工作人员在楼宇间常用的路径和轨道。

Fly control on pig farms is essential

蝇类控制至关重要

While the spread of most viruses is involved in respiration, this route of infection is less likely with ASF. But flies are a direct contact medium for ASF, so it is essential that they are kept under control. There is plenty of advice on this. What should be done is to have a ‘fly expert’ on the farm so that one person has the responsibility of fly control – which has the advantage of if not having forthcoming results, then training in this area can be instituted.

虽然大多数病毒的传播与呼吸有关,但非瘟的传播与这种感染途径关系不大。不过,苍蝇是非瘟的直接接触媒介,因此必须加以控制。对此有很多建议。猪场应该做的是雇佣一位“苍蝇专家”,让他负责管控苍蝇——这么做有一个好处,如果没有达到既定效果,就可以在这方面开展培训。

Birds are another worry and if anywhere near an ASF infection then the expense of expanded wire netting could be worthwhile.

另一个令人担忧的问题是鸟类,在非瘟感染区域附近的任何地方,增加铁丝网的投入可能是值得的。

My next article provides a simple checklist of protective precautions the producer can take against ASF.

下一篇文章,我将提供一个简单的清单,列出养猪户针对非瘟可以采取的保护性预防措施。

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创请勿转载)