看国外 | 丹麦研究发现:苍蝇或可传播非洲猪瘟?

看国外 2018-12-05 09:38:49

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来源:WATTagNet,The Pig Site 

A recent study concluded that if a pig digests flies that have been in contact with a herd infected by African swine fever (ASF), that pig could contract the virus. More than 50 African swine fever outbreaks have been reported in Eastern Europe and China since August.

自8月份以来,东欧及中国已爆发50多起非洲猪瘟疫情。 而近期有研究发现,如果一只苍蝇接触过感染了非洲猪瘟的猪群,而后又被另一头猪吃下肚,那么这头猪也有可能感染该病毒。

Various reports explain different ways the virus may be transmitted. Denmark’s National Veterinary Institute oversaw the study that resulted in the fly biting theory.

目前有许多关于非洲猪瘟病毒如何传播的研究。丹麦国家兽医研究所参与监督了其中一项研究,该研究的结果指向“苍蝇叮咬”理论。

While fly control has always been an important part of many biosecurity plans, this new finding may force operations to increase biosecurity measures related to flies.

尽管防范苍蝇一直是许多生物安全计划的重要组成部分,但这一新发现可能促使猪场加强与苍蝇有关的生物安全措施。

The study

研究

Scientists at the Denmark veterinary institute wanted to identify the risk biting flies pose to spreading the virus, as larger insects such as horseflies could feed on dead wild boar before finding their way onto farms, Pig Health Today reported.

据Pig Health Today报道,丹麦国家兽医研究所的科学家们希望找出蝇虫在病毒传播中的风险,因为像牛虻这样的大型昆虫在进入猪场之前有可能以野猪尸体为食。

Three groups of 12 piglets were separated in different rooms. The first group was injected orally with blood from pigs with ASF. The second group was orally given homogenized flies that had fed on ASF-spiked blood. The third group was individually fed 20 intact infected flies in a soft cake mix.

实验共分三组,每组12只仔猪,分别置于不同房间。

第一组口服感染非洲猪瘟的病猪血液。

第二组口服用非洲猪瘟病猪血液饲喂过的苍蝇。

第三组每头仔猪分别吃下一块混合了20只完整感染果蝇的软蛋糕。

The groups underwent daily monitoring. According to the Pig Health Today report, “the scientists found that 25 percent of piglets in Group 1 and 50 percent of piglets in Group 2 and Group 3 were infected by orally ingesting the virus. The remaining pigs were believed to have been infected via contact with infected pigs in their group."

科学家们每日对实验数据进行监测。据Pig Health Today报道,“研究发现,第一组中25%的仔猪、第二组和第三组中50%的仔猪是经口服摄入病毒感染的,其余猪只则是通过与感染猪群接触而感染”。

‘Readily preventable’

“易于预防”

The results show that not only can biting flies carry ASF by feeding on infected pigs, they can also infect healthy animals if they are eaten.

结果表明,携带了非洲猪瘟病毒的苍蝇不止可以通过叮咬猪只传播病毒,如果被健康的猪只吃下同样也会感染猪只。

“It is unlikely that ingestion of blood‐fed flies is a common route for transmission of ASFV between wild boars or between pigs within a stable,” the researchers said.

研究员们表示,“非洲猪瘟病毒在野猪之间或稳定的猪群之间常见的传播途径,不太可能是猪只吃下摄入了感染血液的苍蝇”。

However, when bearing in mind the biology of the flies, the results indicate that flies could be one possible route of transmission over short distances. 

然而,当考虑到果蝇的生物学机理时,结果表明苍蝇可能是短距离传播的一种可能途径。

“Such transmission seems readily preventable [through] using ventilation filters,” they added.

他们还说道,“这种传输似乎很容易通过使用通风过滤器来预防”。

Other spreading theories

其它传播理论

China’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs had previously linked the country’s early cases of African swine fever to the feeding of kitchen waste. The ministry has now banned the practice, which it said caused 62 percent of the first 21 outbreaks.

此前,中国农业和农村事务部认为早前发生的非洲猪瘟疫情与喂食厨余垃圾有关。目前,这种做法已被禁止,据传最早爆发的21起疫情中,62%与此相关。

Contaminated feed also can be a carrier of ASF. Tangrenshen, a Chinese animal feed producer, had previously said ASF was found in feed samples produced by the subsidiary during inspections after an outbreak of the disease at a farm in Anhui province and that it was investigating. Just a day after its announcement, the company said tests ruled out the presence of ASF in its products.

受污染的饲料也可能是传播非洲猪瘟的载体。

中国动物饲料生产商唐人神此前曾表示,安徽省某农场爆发该病后,其子公司在检查期间生产的饲料样本中发现了该病毒,并正在进行调查。就在公布后一天,该公司表示,测试排除了受污染产品的存在。

Feed mills can take certain steps to avoid the potential for feed ingredients to act as a vector for microscopic threats. The main advice Cassandra Jones, Ph.D., associate professor at Kansas State University, gave in her presentation at the Feed and Pet Food Joint Conference for avoiding pathogens in feeds was to avoid high-risk ingredients from high-risk countries.

饲料厂也可采取某些措施,来避免饲料原料成为病毒的载体。Cassandra Jones博士是堪萨斯州立大学的副教授,其在饲料及宠物食品联合会议上发表了题为《如何避免饲料中的病原体》的演讲,她给出的主要建议是避免来自高风险国家的高风险原料。

Pork consumption

猪肉消费

It is important that consumers understand that ASF is a highly contagious viral disease that affects only pigs, not people, so it is not a public health threat nor a food safety concern.

对于消费者而言,重要的是,应了解虽然非洲猪瘟是一种高度传染性的病毒性疾病,但是仅影响猪群而不会影响到人,因此既不构成公共卫生威胁,也不是食品安全问题。

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创请勿转载)


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