看国外 | 俄罗斯最大的猪肉生产商如何在非瘟后提高生物安全

看国外 2019-08-05 09:18:20

Russia is full of stories. From a visit to Cherkizovo’s brand new sow farm, called ‘Dankov Lipetsk 89’, a range of interesting tales came together. Today, useful biosecurity lessons regarding ASF.

俄罗斯的故事何其多。拜访了Cherkizovo全新的、名为“Dankov Lipetsk 89”的母猪场之后,发生了一系列有意思的事。今天我们讲的是与非洲猪瘟有关的生物安全教训。

Russian pig integrator Cherkizovo may be applying a lot of US knowledge, but in terms of biosecurity it exceeds the US standards. For perfectly logical reasons though, given that Russia has to deal with outbreaks of African Swine Fever (ASF), a virus that never entered the USA and which is hoped will stay that way as well.

俄罗斯一体化猪肉生产商Cherkizovo或许运用了很多美国养猪业的知识,但在生物安全方面,它超过了美国标准。然而,考虑到俄罗斯必须应对非洲猪瘟(ASF)的爆发,这是完全合乎逻辑的理由。毕竟非瘟病毒从未进入美国,人们也希望能一直保持这种状态。

Additional biosecurity measures by Cherkizovo

Cherkizovo额外采取的生物安全措施

Transportation

运输
• Investments in long-haul trucks, including heated trailers and filtered trailers for multiplication (almost US$ 10 million);
• Strict movement control with GPS tracking in feed and live haul trucks;
• Trucks are only allowed to stop at pre-designated stops;
• All trucks are sealed with a serial number ID;
• Segregation of transportation by health status;
• Downtime chart for human interactions with pigs;
• Construction of three new truck washes; option to ‘bake’ trucks.

•投资长途卡车,包括加热拖车和过滤拖车(近1000万美元);

•严格控制饲料、活拖货车的行踪,GPS跟踪;

•卡车只能停在预先指定的站点;

•所有卡车都贴上序列号ID;

•根据健康状况对运输进行隔离;

•员工与猪接触的停机时间图表;

•建设三个新的洗车场;选择性“烘烤”卡车。

Humans

人员
• Biosecurity audit programme;
• Monthly summaries of violations;
• Quarantine building for domestic sales in Russia;
• Camera use in clean/dirty lines (after 2016).

•生物安全审查计划;

•每月违规总结;

•俄罗斯国内销售检疫大楼;

•区分用于清洁/脏污管路的相机(2016年后)。

Testing

检测
• Foundation of a central lab near Moscow (US$ 5.2 million); over 800 pork tests per week alone.

•在莫斯科附近建立一个中心实验室(520万美元);仅每周就有超过800次猪肉检测。

Mortality removal

死亡动物处置
• Purchase of 45 cremators for on-site disposal of dead animals (US$ 1.5 million).

•购买45个焚化炉现场处理动物尸体(150万美元)。

Fundamental changes at Cherkizovo

Cherkizovo发生的根本性变化

For Cherkizovo, this wasn’t any different, until 2014. The outbreak, led to a series of fundamental changes at Cherkizovo. It was reason to take biosecurity a lot more seriously than it had done before. “We always thought that we had our biosecurity pretty well in order,” says Brad Heron, director of the pork division at Cherkizovo.

对于Cherkizovo而言,在2014年之前,情况都没有什么不同。直到那一年非洲猪瘟爆发,导致Cherkizovo发生了一系列根本性的变化。这也是为什么要比以往更加认真地对待生物安全问题。Cherkizovo猪肉部门主管布拉德•赫伦(Brad Heron)表示:“我们一直以为,我们的生物安全状况相当良好。”

“Only when ASF struck we realised it wasn’t enough. “What we learned from this outbreak were a few things: people are a significant risk, the virus does not spread very quickly, live haul transport was a vulnerability and government and outsourced testing was too slow to rely on.” The lessons turned into a range of measures, which are summed up in the Box ‘Biosecurity measures by Cherkizovo’.

“直到非洲猪瘟来袭时,我们才意识到这还不够。我们从这次疫情中学到了几件事:人是一个巨大的风险,病毒不会很快传播,现场运输是一个薄弱环节,政府和外包检测太慢,无法依赖。”这些经验教训最终转化为一系列措施,总结在上述“Cherkizovo的生物安全措施”一栏中。

 QQ20190805-092501.png

Feed rations are being brought to silos which are located just inside the farm’s perimeter. From there, an on-site truck will bring the feed to the farm houses. Photo: Vincent ter Beek

饲料正在被送往位于猪场周边的粮仓。在这里,现场的卡车将把饲料送到猪场。图:Vincent ter Beek

New ASF outbreak in 2016

2016年,新的非瘟疫情爆发

Despite all these stringent measures, in 2016, the virus broke once more on a 6,200 sow farm. Thanks to all measures, however, the source and cause was easy to find and so further spread could be avoided.

尽管采取了所有这些严厉措施,2016年,非瘟病毒在一个6200头母猪的猪场再次爆发。不过,由于采取了所有措施,病源和原因很容易找到,因此避免了疫情进一步传播。

Mr Heron explains, “Testing protocols and GPS trackers allowed us to really hone in on possible infection points. The cause of infection was a human sneaking in an outside bag to steal semen to use on her family’s backyard pigs. We also concluded that the high cost testing programme that was put into place saved the company millions of dollars. Unlike 2014, we did not allow the virus to spread.”

赫伦先生解释说:“测试协议和GPS追踪器让我们能够真正地找到可能的感染点。感染的原因是一个人偷偷拿着外来的袋子,偷精液给她自家的猪用。我们还得出结论,实施的测试项目虽然成本高,但为公司节省了数百万美元。与2014年不同的是,我们没有让病毒继续传播。”

 QQ20190805-092645.png

Biosecurity measure are high. Shoes need to be left behind at the enterance. Photo: Vincent ter Beek

生物安全措施级别很高。鞋子必须存放在猪场入口处。图:Vincent ter Beek

Transparency about ASF outbreaks

非瘟疫情爆发透明度

The authorities also quickly acknowledged that it wasn’t just a random company that reported ASF – this was Cherkizovo, taking the outbreak dead seriously and being completely transparent about what happened. Mr Heron says, “It was another hard lesson for us. One thing stood out: we cannot trust the people. That is why we decided to have increased levels of showers and to increase cameras at all clean/dirty lines.”

当局也迅速承认,上报非洲猪瘟的不是随便一家公司——而是Cherkizovo,该公司严肃对待疫情死亡,对所发生的事情完全透明。赫伦先生说:“这对我们来说是另一个艰难的教训。有一件事很突出:我们不能完全信任员工。这就是为什么我们决定增加淋浴次数,并在所有洁净/脏污的线路上增加摄像头。”

Cherkizovo’s experiences got international recognition by now, with also US veterinary professionals wanting to learn from Cherkizovo’s experiences with ASF.

Cherkizovo的经验得到了国际认可,美国兽医专家也希望从Cherkizovo对抗ASF的经验中学习。

 QQ20190805-092819.png

Staff at Lipstek 8 are enjoying lunch which is prepared for them. Nobody brings food in and there is strictly no pork served on the menu. Photo: Vincent ter Beek

Lipstek 8猪场的员工正在想用为他们备好的午餐。所有人都不可带食物进入,并且菜单上也严格限制不可供应猪肉。图: Vincent ter Beek

文章来源:Pig Progress

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


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