看国外 | John Gadd:预防非洲猪瘟(2) -如何打造坚不可摧的猪场

看国外 2019-01-18 10:50:31

来源:Pig Progress

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John Gadd

As African Swine Fever continues to make more victims in China, it is wise for any pig farmer worldwide to know how to be prepared as well as possible, should the virus ever travel on. Pig management expert John Gadd continues where he left off – and gives a long checklist.

非洲猪瘟在中国持续肆虐,如果病毒继续传播,全球的养猪户都应该知道如何尽自己所能做好准备。养猪管理专家John Gadd给出了一份长长的清单。

In the previous article, I reminded that African Swine Fever (ASF) is all about contact. Remember, the operative word in preventing ASF from entering your business is freedom from contact. That is why I introduce the ‘Fortress Farm’ concept.

在前一篇文章中,我提醒大家,非洲猪瘟(ASF)与接触有关。记住,防止ASF进入猪场最有效的方式是避免接触。这就是我引入“堡垒猪场”概念的原因。

The Fortress Farm: What to keep in mind?

堡垒猪场:你应该了解的事

• Who visits the farm? Anybody? Keep them away as far as humanly possible. One exception – I gave advice on allowing-in the pig vet in my first article.

•谁来访猪场?任何人?尽可能远离他们。除了一个例外——上篇文章中,我给出了允许兽医进入猪场的建议。

• How do you accept any deliveries – food, pigs, packages, etc.? Again advice in last article.

•货物——食物、猪、包裹等如何运到猪场中?请参考上一篇文章中的建议。

• Replacement stock needs strict discipline. Does your vet liaise with the vendor? Do you quarantine? Far away enough? Long enough? Inspect twice a day? An agreed disposal procedure in place for rejects? Buy only from one accredited source. Never ever from markets.

•后备种猪需要严格的纪律规范。兽医和卖主有联系吗?是否隔离了?够远吗?时间够长吗?一天是否检查两次?是否有针对不合格品的商定处置程序?仅从一个可靠经过认证的渠道购买,而不是在市场上购买。

• Deliveries of selected replacement stock and food. Have you made it clear to all involved in regular deliveries to your premises that you insist that they follow your protocols, and that the continuation of your business will depend on it.

•后备种猪和食品的运输。您是否已向所有参与定期送货到猪场的人明确表示,他们必须遵守协议,而猪场业务能否继续开展将取决于协议。

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OK – this kind of protection may be a little bit over the top for a farm, but just like these medieval city walls of Ávila in central Spain, any farm should be constructed to keep unwanted visitors out. Photo: Vlad Gheia | Dreamstime

好吧,对于猪场来说,这样的保护措施可能有点过头,但就像图中西班牙中部的阿维拉中世纪城墙一样,每个猪场都应该设立这样的防护,把不速之客阻挡在外。

• Find out how often they sanitise their delivery vehicles – a good indicator of their seriousness in their controlling the spread of disease.

•摸清楚他们多久对送货车消毒一次,这是检验他们对控制疾病传播是否严谨的很好的指标。

• Discipline is needed by the suppliers of replacement stock. But the impetus – as with food deliveries – must come from the farmer himself. He, as the customer, must make clear to the supplier that no vehicle should be accepted without a form/certificate that the vehicle has been properly cleaned and disinfected – inside and out – before calling at the farm. This is not done as far as I am aware, in any of the localities where ASF is in progress, such as China where ASF is spreading fast.

·与后备种猪的供应商定好规则。但是内部运输,比如食品搬运,应该由养猪户自己动手。作为客户,养猪户应明确向供应商表示,只有提供了车辆内外清洁消毒证明的车辆方能入内。据我所知,目前在非瘟肆虐的地方,都没有这么做

• Do not allow sales reps on to your farm. Much friendly negotiation can be done these days by laptop or visual phone; failing this, in a pub or cafe off the farm. A visual laptop can be used to show the on-farm situation if a problem with food, ventilation, heating, water supply or equipment failure is involved.

• 不要让销售经理进入猪场。现如今,通过笔记本电脑或者可视手机便能实现友好谈判,如果没成,也可以在远离猪场的酒吧或咖啡厅进行。一旦涉及日粮、通风、加热、供水系统或设备,可以通过可视化电脑笔记本展示猪场的情况。

• Those involved often do not necessarily need to visit the farm these days. As a farm advisor I use these visual facilities frequently myself and have halved the need to visit to give advice and solve problems, thus making better use of my limited time; reducing my costs and your expenses.

•现在,有关人员并不需要亲自去到猪场。我经常使用这些可视化工具,所以不需要去现场提出建议、解决问题,因而我可以更好地利用有限的时间,既可以减少我的成本也能减少你的费用。

• Do you have a locked perimeter fence with call bell and telephone? More than this – all delivery bulk food should be blown into receiving bins on the perimeter, not inside the farm. The same with deliveries of other materials and goods – create a perimeter outstation.

•猪场外围是否有带电话铃和电话的上锁围栏?不仅如此 - 所有散装食品都应该集中到周边的接收箱中,而不是在农场内。与其他材料和货物的交付相同 - 创建一个周边分站。

• Consider your farm as a fortress isolated from any outside direct contact. This takes courage, some expenditure, and discipline. Avoiding contact with as many of the proven disease vectors as possible has to be your mantra for the future. Think ‘contact’ in anything you do or are asked to do by us advisors – how can you reduce contact?

•把猪场当成与外界隔离的堡垒。做到这一点需要勇气、一笔费用和规章制度。未来,您的口头禅必须是,尽可能避免与已证实的疾病媒介接触。在采取措施或听取我这样的顾问的意见时,想一想“接触”,想想如何减少接触。

• Shower-in/shower-out is in my opinion probably overrated, but continue until it is proved to be so. The quality of these facilities is too low on many farms I visit; for example they must be supported by an on-farm laundry service.

• 在我看来,出入沐浴的作用也许被高估了,但要继续,直到事实证明的确如此。在我拜访的许多农场中,这些设施的质量太低;例如,它们必须由农场洗衣服务提供支持。

• Once the outside defences of the ‘fortress’ are established, there is a need these days for an inner ‘ring’. The first line of defence against any disease is to learn about immunity and how you can influence it so as to enable the pig to build up its own defences against pathogens. And it does not cost much in relation to the benefits a correct immune status provides. Let nature help you.

•一旦“堡垒”的外部防御建立了,这时就需要一个内部“环”。抵御任何疾病的第一道防线是了解免疫力以及如何影响它,从而使猪能够建立自己的防御能力,抵御病原体。与正确的免疫状态所带来的好处相比,建立壁垒不需要花费太多。让大自然帮助你。

• The second line of internal defence is to distinguish between a detergent and a disinfectant. The detergent is equally important to a disinfectant. I am beginning to suspect that an approved detergent and its proper use is even more important than disinfectants, despite the disproportionate attention disinfectants get in the press.

 Any disinfectant needs help to reduce the numbers of viable numbers of pathogens on pig-contact surfaces so as to allow a sufficient kill by the disinfectant to permit the pig`s natural immunity to take over.

••第二道防线是区分清洁剂和消毒剂。清洁剂对消毒剂同样重要。我认为,一种经过批准的清洁剂及其正确使用比消毒剂更重要,尽管消毒剂在媒体上引起了不成比例的关注。消毒剂可以减少猪接触面上的活菌数量,从而让猪的自然免疫能力发挥作用。

• Lastly and of course for common sense reasons, do not visit areas where ASF is in progress. If by accident you do, then complete cleaning of all the garments on you and in your baggage is essential.

•最后一点常识,不要访问非瘟肆虐的地区。如果是偶然为之,应彻底清洗身上及行李箱中的衣物。

My final article on ASF is my suggested layout of what a ‘fortress farm’ should look like.

下一篇文章里,我将展示我心目中“堡垒型猪场”的样子。

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创请勿转载)