看国外 | 精准畜牧可改进养猪业透明度及可持续发展

看国外 2019-09-05 13:20:13

A new review published by researchers from Michigan State University’s veterinary and engineering colleges explores the technology currently available for monitoring swine health and welfare, and how to use it on farm.

密歇根州立大学兽医和工程学院的研究人员新发表了一篇文章,探讨了目前可用于监测生猪健康和福利的技术,以及其在猪场的应用。

The ability to continuously and non-invasively gather data on individual pig (and herd) welfare can provide statistically supported hypotheses for productivity fluctuations, mortality rates and disease occurrence. In turn, this information provides a basis for making any changes in swine units and can also be used to predict productivity and any welfare issues, such as tail-biting outbreaks.

持续、非侵入性地收集生猪个体(和群体)福利数据的能力可以为生产波动、死亡率和疾病发生率提供统计意义上的假设。反过来,这些信息为生猪养殖单位的任何变化提供了判断基础,也可用于预测生产力和任何福利问题,如咬尾行为的爆发。

The current review provides an introduction to algorithms and machine learning, summarises current literature on relevant sensors and sensor network systems, and drawing from industry pig welfare audit criteria, explains how these applications can be used to improve swine welfare and meet current pork production stakeholder expectations.

该文章介绍了算法和机器学习,总结了相关传感器和传感器网络系统的现有文献,并从生猪福利审查标准中得出结论,解释了如何应用这些手段以改善生猪福利,并满足当前猪肉生产利益相关者的期望。

Precision livestock farming

精准畜牧业

The description for precision livestock farming used in this review is as follows:

“Precision livestock farming implies automated remote detection and monitoring of identified individuals for animal health and welfare using real-time analysis of images, sounds, tracking data, weight and body condition, and biological metrics in livestock.”

该文对精准畜牧业的描述如下:

“精准畜牧业意味着通过对牲畜的图像、声音、追踪数据、体重和身体状况以及生物指标的实时分析,自动远程检测和监测动物的健康和福利状况。”

The basic technology

基本技术

2D and 3D cameras

2D、3D相机

Imaging in pigs has been used to estimate pig weight, aggressive behaviour, walking patterns, sow posture, and behaviour during lactation.

生猪成像应用于估计生猪体重、攻击行为、行走模式、母猪哺乳期姿势和行为。

There is a broad range of imaging technology available, ranging from basic 2D camera sensors that require adequate ambient lighting to produce useful images and video, to 3D sensors that can provide more detailed, colour imaging. Infrared and depth sensors have become useful for capturing footage in low light and at night, and in determining proximity.

有各种各样的成像技术可供选择,从需要足够环境照明的基本2D相机传感器以生成有用的图像和视频,到能够提供更详细彩色成像的3D传感器。红外和深度传感器可用于在低光和夜间拍摄素材,以及确定接近度。

Microphones

话筒

Simple microphones and computers can be used to capture and process sound, which has proven useful in classifying and localising specific acoustic events such as indicators of stress or illness. High frequency calls could signal the occurrence of stressful events and an increase in the rate of coughing could indicate respiratory disease.

简单的麦克风和计算机可用于捕获和处理声音,已证明可用于对特定声学事件(例如压力或疾病指标)进行分类和定位。高频率呼叫显示压力事件的发生,而咳嗽率增加可能意味着呼吸道疾病。

Thermistors and infrared imaging of temperature

热敏电阻和红外成像温度

Temperature monitors using a contact measuring media typically utilise thermistors embedded in a data logger or ear tag sensor. The sensor has direct contact with the tissue to take temperature measurements and provide temperature accuracies to 0.1 C.

使用接触式测量介质的温度监控器通常使用嵌入在数据记录器或耳标传感器中的热敏电阻。传感器与组织直接接触以进行温度测量,并且温度误差控制在0.1C。

Infrared cameras measure physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature and as they do not require actual contact with the animal, they can be applied as a non-invasive, instantaneous method of collecting temperature data.

红外摄像机测量的是与体温变化相关的生理和病理过程,并且由于不需要与动物实际接触,因此可作为非侵入性、瞬时收集温度数据的方法。

Accelerometers and motion tracking

加速器及运动追踪

An accelerometer is an electromechanical device used to measure accelerating forces. Forces can be static (eg, pig is lying down or resting) or acceleration due to movement (eg, pig is walking).

加速度计用于测量加速力的机电装置。力可以是静态的(例如,猪躺下或休息)或由于运动而加速(例如,行走中的生猪)。

Livestock identification

识别牲畜

In order to gain meaningful output from gathering animal data on a large-scale, commercial basis, an accurate method of identifying each animal is essential. This identification system must also be automated and affordable in order to be of value to the typical farmer. Individual identification methods, either currently used in the swine industry or research, include radio frequency identification, optical character recognition, and facial recognition.

为了从大规模商业猪场收集动物数据获得有价值信息,识别每种动物的准确方法是必不可少的。该识别系统还必须是自动且价格合理的,以便对典型养殖户有价值。目前在养猪业或研究中使用的个体识别方法包括射频识别、光学字符识别和面部识别。

How you use your pig data

如何应用这些生猪数据

How you apply this technology on farm and the value its application can provide to producers, veterinarians and swine specialists is entirely dependent on what parameters you wish to monitor and how you use the data collected.

如何在农场应用此技术及其应用可为生产者、兽医和猪专家提供的价值完全取决于你希望监控的参数以及如何使用所收集到的数据。

However, with the global population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, demand for food will only increase, and therefore the sustainability of all livestock industries is critical to providing a reliable food source. By collecting and analysing vast quantities of data at a rate human observation cannot match, and continued development of precision farming, the possibilities for making long-term, measurable improvements on the transparency and sustainability of the pig industry is certainly attainable.

然而,全球人口预计到2050年将超过90亿,对粮食的需求只会有增无减,因此所有畜牧业的可持续性对于提供可靠的食物来源至关重要。通过以人类观察无法比拟的速度收集和分析大量数据,以及精准农业的持续发展,养猪业的透明度和可持续性有可能实现长期且显著的改进。

来源:The Pig Site

原文链接

https://thepigsite.com/articles/all-you-need-to-know-about-precision-farming-in-swine-welfare

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


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