看国外 | John Gadd:增强生猪免疫力,猪场可以怎么做?

看国外 2019-09-27 17:14:10

Immunity in pig production is not a particularly easy subject. It all starts with producing knowing what they doing and making sure that they are not making things too easy for pathogens, writes pig management John Gadd.

在生猪生产中,免疫不是一个特别容易的课题。猪场管理专家John Gadd写道,这一切都始于对生猪行为的了解,并确保它们不会轻易受病原体入侵。

Immunity is firstly defined as ‘security against a particular disease’ and secondly, it is a huge and complicated subject. We all know both of these are truisms, but what is less understood among many pig producers is the considerable part their actions on their own farm can play in mitigating disease.

首先,免疫定义为“针对特定疾病的安全”,其次,这是一个庞大而复杂的课题。我们都知道这两种说法都是老生常谈,但许多养猪户不太了解的是,他们自己在猪场中采取的行动在减轻疾病上能发挥的作用有多大。

I would go so far as claiming that what the farmer can do for himself is the very cornerstone of immunity in his case. Vaccines, biosecurity, veterinary supervision, how nutrition can help – or sometimes hinder an adequate immune status, what the breeding companies can do to make things easier… All are important, many are essential – sure!

我甚至认为养殖户自己能采取的行动的是其生猪获得免疫力的基石。疫苗、生物安全、兽医监管、营养如何帮助——或者有时阻碍适当的免疫状态,育种公司可以做些什么来让事情变得更容易……所有这些都很重要,其中许多是必不可少的——这是当然的!

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A finisher pig at a trough in a farm in Italy that is actively working on achieving a higher immunity status for its pigs. Photo: Henk Riswick

图片为意大利一个正在使生猪获得更高免疫力的猪场,图中一头育肥猪料槽边。图:Henk Riswick

Take one of these, vaccines, for example. An important weapon in the acquisition of certain essential immunities, but they need to be targeted at the right disease and used at the right time. Even so, if the farmer has prepared the ground/made things easier for them, then they’ll be more effective in both the short term and long term. And cheaper too.

以疫苗为例,这是一种获得某些基本免疫的重要武器,但它们需要针对适当的疾病并在适当的时间使用。即使如此,如果养殖户已经做好了准备,那么疫苗在短期和长期都会更有效,也更便宜。

Doing the sums

做总结

I have done the sums and published them, see for instance Tables 1 and 2. But vaccines can be overused. I was working extensively in the USA in the 1990s, when their pig producers were assailed by 11 major virus and bacterial diseases. With the vaccine protocol(s) advised by the veterinary authorities, sometimes 6 or more being used at the same time. Such an all-encompassing (what we called a ‘blunderbuss’ approach) seemed then to the pig people to be a likely way out.

我做了统计并发了出来,如表1和表2所示。但是疫苗可能被过度使用了。上世纪90年代,我在美国各地工作,当时的养猪户遭受了11种主要病毒和细菌疾病的袭击。根据兽医当局建议的疫苗方案,有时需要同时使用6种或6种以上疫苗。这样一个无所不包的方法(我们称之为“blunderbuss”)在当时看来似乎是一个可行的出路。

Table 1 - Before and after results from using a pig specialist veterinarian to disease profile three farms. Extra vaccination and remodelling costs included (US$ /sow).

表1 -使用专业兽医对三个猪场进行疾病概况分析前后的结果。额外的疫苗接种和改造费用包括在内(美元/母猪)。

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The result was nearly a national pig disaster for them, the hoped-for protective immune systems were overloaded and disease levels became rampant, not controlled. I happened to be there to help the local ‘GP’ vets clear up the mess – the answer was to go back to basic immune encouragement actions on the farm, not necessarily rely on the factory. Then things started to improve in the 2000s.

结果,对他们来说,这几乎是一场全国性养猪业灾难,他们所期待的保护性免疫系统超负荷运转,疾病变得猖獗,得不到控制。我碰巧在那里帮助当地的“全科医生”兽医处理乱子——解决办法是回到基本的免疫程序,而不一定要依靠工厂。情况在21世纪初开始好转。

So this and the following article suggest the main things the pig producer can do before the helpful ancillary actions are needed to assist a good protective state of immunity. Some cost a bit more money, others nothing at all apart from vigilance and effort.

因此,这篇文章提出了,在采取有益的辅助措施以帮助保持良好的免疫保护状态之前,养猪户可以做的主要事情。有些要花多一点钱,有些除了警惕和努力不需要花钱。

Golden rules of establishing an effective immune status

建立有效免疫状态的黄金法则

On any farm, of any size and location.

对于任何规模、任意地点的任何农场, 

1. Get a vet to disease-profile your herd. He can only do this by regular attendance. Things change; nature does this to protect itself, so regular check-tests are needed to keep pace with what disease throws at you. In this way you are one step ahead of nature. And can take the right countermeasures in good time. Does it pay? Yes, see Table 1.

1. 找个兽医来检查猪群的疾病情况。他只有经常来访才能做到这一点。事情一直在变化;大自然这样做是为了保护自己,所以需要定期检查来跟上疾病的步伐。这样你就走在了大自然的前面,并能及时采取正确的对策。这么做值得吗?是的,见表1。

2. Never, never overstock! Overstocking is an open invitation for any hostile micro-organisms to enter your herd and do their worst, as immunity is compromised. This is where breeding firms can help. Only a few docile strains with the right genes can cope, but most will not. With housing costs accelerating it is a major temptation to crowd more in. It just doesn’t pay (Table 2). Savings in lower housing costs from 15% overstocking were £0.64/pig (€ 0.72). Net gain therefore from not overstocking was £3.05/pig (€ 3.45).

2. 永远不要过度养殖!过度养殖相当于公开邀请有害微生物进入猪群,并且由于免疫系统妥协了,病毒就可以肆意妄为。这就是育种公司可以发挥作用的地方。只有少数具有正确基因的菌株可以应对,但大多数做不到。栏舍成本的加速上涨,加剧了圈养更多生猪的念头。但这样做根本不划算(表2)。多饲养15%的生猪,节省下来的住房成本为每头猪0.64英镑(折合0.72欧元)。因此,不过度养殖的净收益为每头猪3.05英镑(折合3.45欧元)。

Table 2 - Likely costs incurred by overstocking a nursery and a finishing house by 15% (about one more pig in a pen designed to take 12). £1 = €…

表2 -一个保育舍和一个育肥猪舍过度养殖可能产生的成本为15%(约等于在一个可容纳12头猪的猪圈内再增加一头猪)。£1 =€……

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原文链接:

https://www.pigprogress.net/Health/Articles/2019/9/Immunity-What-can-pig-farmers-do-themselves-476115E/ 

作者:John Gadd

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


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